Electrical Installation of Building: Definition, Meaning, Structure

Electrical installation of building: assembly of associated electric equipment located in a building and having co-ordinated characteristics to fulfil specific purposes [SOURCE: IEC 60050-826:2004, 826-01-01, modified: addition of “located in a building and”].

Electrical Installation of the Apartment

Currently, there is a new concept – “apartment electrical installation”, which characterizes a separate part of the electrical installation of an apartment building, located in one apartment. The electrical installation of the apartment is a set of interconnected electrical equipment installed in the apartment. Usually it functions independently of the electrical installations of other apartments.

The electrical installation of an apartment consists of several parts – electrical circuits. Until the nineties of the last century, the electrical installation of an apartment was usually a single-phase electrical installation and consisted of two final electric circuits for lighting and plug sockets. In residential buildings where electric stoves were installed, a third electric stove final electric circuit was added to the two mentioned circuits. These circuits were connected to the floor distribution board.

Nowadays, an apartment electrical installation can be a single-phase or three-phase electrical installation. It consists of a larger number of final electric circuits. For example, the electrical installation of a two-room apartment may include two lighting final electric circuits, five plug socket final electric circuits, one electric stove final electric circuit, one electric water heater final electric circuit, one air conditioner final electric circuit, one electric floor heating final electric circuit. These final electric circuits are usually connected to the apartment’s switchboard, which is in turn connected to the floor distribution board by means of the electrical wiring of the electrical distribution circuit.

Interior and Exterior Electrical Installation of Building

Y.V. Harechko in his book [2], in my opinion, describes in detail and fully the essence of these concepts (author’s note: as translated by me):

« All electrical equipment installed in a building is designed to perform strictly defined functions. For example, an electric light fixture illuminates a room or some part of it. A cable transmits electrical energy to some rooms in the building. A switch turns on and off a light fixture or a group of lights, etc. The sum of all the electrical equipment installed in a building constitutes the electrical installation of building, which should be classified as an indoor electrical installation. However, some parts of the electrical installation of building, e.g. including lights used to illuminate the outside walls of the building and the surrounding area, may be installed outside the building on its walls and roof. This part of the building’s electrical installation corresponds in design to the outdoor electrical installation. »

For the normal operation of a building’s electrical installation, the electrical equipment included in it must have consistent characteristics with each other. For example, the wiring conductors must be capable of delivering the rated electrical power required for normal operation of the electrical equipment. Overcurrent protection devices must reliably protect these conductors against overloads and short circuits. The rated voltage of the electrical equipment must match the rated voltage of the electrical circuits, etc.

Structure

The electrical installation of building consists of several parts (electrical circuits) which combine electrical equipment installed in one or more rooms of the building and intended to perform certain functions. Electrical circuits are connected to input devices, input and distribution devices, main switchboards, floor distribution panels, apartment panels and other low-voltage switchgear of the building’s electrical installation. The most common electrical circuits in a building’s electrical installation are the final electric circuits for lighting and outlets. A large building’s electrical installation can have hundreds or thousands of such circuits.

The figure shows, as an example, a schematic representation of the electrical installation of building that is part of the distribution system.

Distribution system
Figure 1 – Distribution system. Schematic representation of the electrical installation of building

FAQ

What Are Types of Electrical Installation?

Electrical installation can be classified into different types according to various criteria. The most common classification is by application, such as residential, commercial, and industrial. Other classifications include the type of wiring system (AC or DC), the voltage level (low voltage or high voltage), and the type of current ( alternating current or direct current).

Residential electrical installation includes all the electrical wiring and equipment installed in a private dwelling, such as a single-family home or an apartment. It usually consists of a main service panel, branch circuits, outlets, and light fixtures.

Commercial electrical installation includes all the electrical wiring and equipment installed in a commercial or industrial building. It typically consists of a main service panel, branch circuits, lighting fixtures, and outlets.

Industrial electrical installation includes all the electrical wiring and equipment installed in an industrial facility. It typically consists of a main service panel, branch circuits, motor control centers, transformers, and outlets.

The type of wiring system used in an electrical installation depends on the voltage level and the type of current. AC wiring systems are used for low-voltage applications, such as residential and commercial installations. DC wiring systems are used for high-voltage applications, such as industrial installations.

The voltage level of an electrical installation depends on the type of equipment that is being powered. Low-voltage installations have voltages that are below 600 volts. High-voltage installations have voltages that are above 600 volts.

How Do You Install Electrical Wiring in a Building?

Whether you’re constructing a new home or office building, or renovating an existing one, the electrical wiring is one of the most important aspects to get right. This guide will help ensure that your wiring is installed correctly and safely.

The first step is to determine the size and type of wire that you’ll need. The size will be based on the amperage rating of the circuit, and the type will be based on the application. For example, if you’re installing outlets in a kitchen, you’ll need to use a different type of wire than if you’re installing lighting fixtures.

Once you’ve determined the size and type of wire that you need, the next step is to install the electrical boxes. These will house the wiring and provide a place to connect the circuits. Make sure that the boxes are properly rated for the circuit breaker size that you’ll be using.

After the electrical boxes are installed, you can begin running the wires. It’s important to run the wires in an orderly fashion so that they don’t get tangled. Start by running the main wire from the breaker box to the first electrical box. Then, connect each wire to the appropriate circuit breaker.

Finally, test the circuits to make sure that they’re working properly. Once everything is functioning correctly, you can then install the outlet covers and light switch covers. This will help to protect the wiring and keep it from being damaged.

What Are the Stages of Electrical Installation?

There are four stages to electrical installation: design, conduits and fittings, cabling, and termination. Each stage has its own set of challenges and potential hazards, so it’s important to understand the risks involved before beginning any electrical project.

Design: The first stage of electrical installation is the design phase. This is where the electrical layout of the project is planned and drawn up. It’s important to have a clear and accurate design, as any mistakes made at this stage can be costly and dangerous.

Conduits and fittings: The second stage is the installation of conduits and fittings. This is where the electrical wiring is run through the building, often in underground ducts or behind walls. This stage can be tricky, as it’s important to make sure the wiring is correctly protected and routed so that it doesn’t pose a fire hazard.

Cabling: The third stage is cabling. This is where the actual electrical wires are installed. This stage can be dangerous if not done correctly, as live wires can pose a serious electrocution risk. It’s important to follow the instructions carefully and use the correct type of wire for the job.

Termination: The fourth and final stage is termination. This is where the electrical installation is completed by connecting the wires to outlets, switches, and other devices. This stage can also be dangerous if not done correctly, as incorrect wiring can cause fires. It’s important to follow the instructions carefully and use the correct type of wire for the job.

References

  1. IEC 60050-826:2004
  2. Kharechko Y.V. Concise Terminological Dictionary of Low Voltage Electrical Installations. Part 2 // Appendix to the journal “Library of the safety engineer”. – 2012. – № 4. – 160 c. Personal English translation by the author of this article.